Read how BCI research grantee Kristen Lear is working to investigate the potential for "bat-friendly" agave management by rural Mexican communities.
We sit on the side of a mountain in northeast Mexico in darkness that is only punctuated by the dim light from the camcorder video screen in front of us. Two softball-sized infrared lamps sit on a tripod on the rocky ground beside us, illuminating the scene with invisible light that only the Sony NightShot camcorder can see. We wait in silence, intently watching for nocturnal visitors to a clump of flowers on an agave plant.
The agaves stalk reaches nearly 20 feet into the air, advertising its flowers full of nectar to bats scouting for their nightly meal. The silence is interrupted by the whooshing of a small group of endangered Mexican long-nosed bats as they rocket into the area to feed on the agaves, and we watch as they take turns sipping the sugary liquid from the plants.
I excitedly scratch tally marks on a piece of paper each time a bat drinks from the flowers. After several minutes of feeding, the bats move on to another area, and we wait in silence again for the next bout of feeding activity.
This monitoring is all part of my PhD research to help conserve the Mexican long-nosed bat (Leptonycteris nivalis), a bat that is in danger of extinction. Every year, Mexican long-nosed bats migrate over 600 miles between central Mexico and northern Mexico/the U.S. Southwest, where each female gives birth to one pup (baby). In northeast Mexico, the bats feed solely on the nectar of agaves. During feeding, the bats pollinate the agaves, ensuring the exchange of genetic material and increasing the plants resistance to pests and diseases.
You may have heard of agaves: theyre the plants that we make our tequila from! Agaves are also used by rural Mexican communities for many other cultural products and uses, including for food and several traditional beverages. However, during harvest, the farmer often removes the flowering stalk to increase the yield of sugar, which removes the food supply for the bats. Ultimately, harvest of agaves may be causing declines in bat populations.
With a grant from Bat Conservation International that is supporting my field research, I am working with a local conservation organization in Mexico (Especies, Sociedad y Habitat, A.C.) to help communities implement bat-friendly agave management and harvest practices, such as replanting agaves in areas where they have been harvested or planting agaves as fences on their property. These practices will allow people to continue harvesting agaves for their important cultural products, but also help protect the bats.
My research is an important first step in this effort. Nights spent in the darkness watching the bats feeding behavior will enable us to discover what draws the bats to an area to feed. For example, do the bats prefer to feed in areas with a higher number of flowering agaves? Do they prefer to feed on plants with more flowers? Answering these questions will ultimately help us figure out where bat-friendly practices should be targeted.
However, bats are only part of the story. Conservation is not just about the animals or plants we are trying to protect, but also about people. Especially in situations like this in which wildlife and people are so tightly connected, it is important that we consider the human half of the equation. So in my research, I am working with rural Mexican communities to understand how they use and manage agaves on their land, and to discover how bat conservationists can encourage bat-friendly management practices in these communities.
Back on the mountain slopes, we continue watching the bats circling the agave flowers, getting their fill of the nectar. While conservation of these bats wont be achieved overnight, our time spent in the dark as silent observers to this dance of survival is a step in the right direction.