Volume 35
Issue 3
The bizarre flaps and wrinkles on the face of the ghost-faced bat
(Mormoops megalophylla) assist them with echolocation.
Photo: Jose Martinez

Although fascinating to bat biologists, little is known about the ghost-faced bat. The bizarre-looking face of the ghost-faced bat (Mormoops megalophylla) is something you are unlikely to forget. The species most striking features, its
tiny eyes, appear to be located inside its large rounded ears that join at its forehead. With wart-like protuberances on its nose and leaf-like appendages on its chin, it is easy to see why it was given its ghoulish common name.

This medium-sized bat, often reddish or reddish-brown in color, is found from southwestern Texas and southern Arizona, southward through Baja California and mainland Mexico into Central America. With the species being considered uncommon in the United
States, bat biologists consider it a thrilling find when captured.

Imagine my excitement when I caught my first one at a remote tinaja in Big Bend National Park, says BCIs Imperiled Species Director Katie Gillies. Lit in the light of my headlamp, I saw the large bat with short shiny fur caught in the net. Its muscular
shoulders were fighting to escape. From behind, my mind raced; I knew it wasnt a species I had ever caught before. Then, he turned his head, facing me, looking at methe bizarre folds and wrinkles around the eyes and nose. It was unmistakablea ghost-faced
bat! I squealed with delight as I removed the gentle giant. Ive been catching bats throughout the Americas for 15 years, and I havent been thrilled like that in a decade or more.

BCI Director of Imperlied Species Katie Gillies with a ghost faced bat
she caught at Big Bend National Park.

Although the ghost-faced bat is fascinating to most bat biologists, very little is known about the species. Ghost-faced bats are thought to forage exclusively on large-bodied moths, although this is only based on the stomach contents of four individuals.

This species appears to remain active year-round, neither hibernating nor migrating. They spend their days in deep caves in karst regions or abandoned mine shafts, and emerge soon after dark to fly to the arroyos and canyons where they forage. They are
strong, fast fliers that travel at relatively high altitudes enroute to and from foraging sites.

Ghost-faced bats give birth to a single pup and require hot steamy caves to raise their young. Without enough bats congregating in the deep cave to keep the temperatures toasty hot (around 104 F) the young may be less likely to survive. Colonies may contain
up to half a million individuals, however males and non-reproducing females will use caves separate from the maternity caves used by nursing females. Unlike other bat species that huddle close together, ghost-faced bats tend to maintain a distance of
approximately 6 inches from each other when roosting.

Peters's ghost faced bat Credit MerlinTuttle.org
Photo: MerlinTuttle.org

Like many cave-dwelling species, ghost-faced bats are at risk of localized extinctions from cave collapse, vandalism and other human disturbance. Cave tourism is causing some localized conservation issues in parts of Central America. With so little
known about the species, efforts to protect these roosting caves provides the best method for conservation.